Antonia Blasina Miseri
(Società Dante Alighieri, Comitato di Gorizia – Italia)
A survey on the use of the Italian language in Croatia
The topic of my paper is the use of the Italian language in Croatia and in particular I would like to explain the results of a survey held in an Italian secondary school in Rovinj and addressed to pupils attending a 1st class and to their parents. The survey is structured through a series of questions starting with personal details, language competence, the language used in different domains: home and family, neighbourhood, friends, workplace, school, church, religion and the media (for example for reading books, newspapers, for listening to radio broadcasts, TV programmes and for writing e-mails). The final questions are about language attitudes and the future of the Italian language.
A multiperspective approach to SPU in the field of law
Mastering specialized phraseological and/or metaphorical units (SPU) in science and technology is a rather difficult issue. It is even more difficult in the field of law for all the professionals included, i.e. lawyers, translators, terminologists, LSP teachers.
Teaching metaphorical and phraseological multiword units is generally considered problematic and deficient. The teacher’s problem solving activities are far from being systematic and productive taking into consideration that the number of specialized languages “designed” to cover various functions in different professional fields is constantly growing.
Another important issue to be discussed is the fact that professionals and experts in any discipline as native speakers hardly notice the figurative nature of a multiword term contrary to their non-native counterparts whose interpretation of figurative notion often lacks the conceptual background knowledge in the source language.
The paper challenges the criteria for the selection and interpretation of metaphorical and phraseological multiword units in a cross-linguistic (English –Croatian - German) and cross-cultural perspective in the field of law. The analysis is based on a relatively small specialized corpus ensuring a deeper terminological insight into the identified units and facilitating the search for their equivalents in the target languages, the focus being on the concept of figurativeness in LSP.
Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb
The influence of other language on legal English
The paper discusses how English of law evolved taking into account some important influences of other languages, mainly Latin and French. The English language of law is, among other things, characterised by numerous borrowings from other languages and it is therefore important to study its historical development and trace the origins of the words that are commonly used today. From the ninth until the twelfth century, words were mainly borrowed from Scandinavian languages, and even the word law is of Scandinavian origin However, language of common law was constructed after the Norman Conquest in 1066. The written language of the law after the Conquest was Latin, as in most of Europe, but numerous words were borrowed from French, the language of the conquerors. French became the language of the law courts in England, and French loans were concerned with law and administration. Thus for a long time (from the thirteenth until the seventeenth century) the English legal profession was trilingual, as Latin was used for legal records, English for hearing witnesses and French for oral pleadings. The paper explores the traces of that period which are still present in modern English of law.
Faculty of Law, University of Osijek
Serbian as Minority language in Croatia – the Slavonian Case
Multilingualism is one of the main goals of the European Union's language policy. Minority languages represent an important segment of that policy. The aim of this paper is to explore the legal position and the intensity of usage of minority languages in Croatian schools and in everyday life of their speakers. The research is based on a survey conducted on the sample of respondents living in the suburb area of Osijek, Slavonia. The explored minority languages are Serbian and Roma. The respondents are both children included in the programme of minority language education in the village of Tenja near Osijek and their parents. The research will not only indicate the position and the status of minority languages in Croatian education system, but will also show attitudes of children and adults from the minority population about the position and the importance of minority languages in their private lives and in Croatian society in general.
Ludger Kremer, Antwerp (Belgium
Does Legal Protection Save Regional Languages? The Case of Low German and Nedersaksisch
Low German (in northern Germany) and Nedersaksisch (in the north-eastern Netherlands) belong to those languages in Europe that are in imminent danger of being given up by their native speakers. The paper will report on the similar situation of these two regional languages on both sides of the Dutch-German border with special attention to Western Westfalia and Emsland, regions generally known as conservative with respect to language maintenance and language change. For these areas the long coexistence of High and Low German resp. Dutch and Nedersaksisch could be described as a stable diglossia until the outbreak of World War II. Since then a decline of active Low German resp. Nedersaksisch speakers has taken place which amounts to some 30% per generation. This has negative consequences for these endangered regional languages: Although their degree of “Ausbau” has reached a remarkable level during the last two or three decades (a growing literary production, use in religious services, TV and radio programs including news and talk shows, modern pop music etc.), and although they have been placed on the Charter of Regional and Minority Languages of the Council of Europe, this impressive cultural expansion and improvement of status is threatened to collapse in the near future because of the rapid decline in the number of their speakers which we are witnessing at present.
Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb
Politeness strategies in the written communication of Croatian lawyers: a contrastive approach
A recent study on the foreign language and content needs analysis of Croatian law students and practising lawyers shows that business correspondence is the most needed skill in English for Legal Purposes courses (Lukica and Kaldonek, 2011). Croatian law students and lawyers require a high degree of communicative competence in English in order to successfully apply for jobs, draft letters before action and reply to various forms of letters received from clients or colleagues to name just a few examples. Communicative competence does not only involve linguistic knowledge of a foreign language, but also social and pragmatic knowledge which is harder to acquire and is not given enough attention to in ELP courses. If the ELP student does not possess a sufficient degree of either type of knowledge, communication breakdown will occur. If one lacks linguistic knowledge, one will be perceived as a less proficient speaker of a language, but if one lacks social or pragmatic knowledge he will be perceived as impolite, bad tempered and inneffective which can reflect negatively on one's reputation as a lawyer and their business prospects.
There are two types of pragmatic errors: pragmalinguistic and sociopragmatic. “Pragmalinguistic error occurs when the pragmatic force of a linguistic structure is different from that normally assigned to it by a native speaker“ (Harlow, 1990) which is attributed to negative transfer from the mother tongue either linguistically or pragmatically. Socipragmatic error refers to “the social conditions placed on language in use“ (Harlow, 1990) which according to Thomas results from culturally different perceptions of what is appropriate linguistic behaviour (1983).
The purpose of this study is to investigate which types of errors occur in written production of Croatian ELP students with regard to politeness as defined by Brown and Levinson (1978). We also want to investigate which strategies they use when communicating with native English speakers in writing and what is the level of their awareness of both politeness strategies and pragmatic errors.
The Croatian Bar Association, Zagreb
ICC and UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules as Applied in Croatia: Legal and Linguistic Aspects
The purpose of this study is to provide a comparative analysis of the language of arbitration as found in the Rules of Arbitration of the International Chamber of Commerce (1998, as revised in 2009), the UNCITRAL Arbitration Rules (1994) and the Rules of the Permanent Arbitration Court at the Croatian Chamber of Economy (2002). The given rules will be analyzed from a linguistic viewpoint, with regard to the degree of clarity and specificity achieved by means of lexical variation and syntactic discontinuity. By particularly focusing on three sets of clauses, including the standard arbitration clause, the demand for arbitration and the appointment of arbitrators, the study will illustrate the extent to which the international rules have served as a reference framework in the drafting of the Zagreb Arbitration Rules by the Croatian Permanent Arbitration Court.
Magdalena Nigoević (University of Split) & Helena Pavletić (University of Pula)
Some aspects of determinologization in the Croatian and Italian legal terminology
Nowadays, more and more domain-specific terms enter the general language usage that results in a phenomenon perceived as the process of determinologization – the reverse process of terminologization. Following Meyer and Mackintosh (2000), the determinologizated linguistic item can undergo two types of semantic changes: in the process of "migration" from specialized domain to general language usage, the original terminological sense can be maintained (though with some minor changes) or the meaning of the original term becomes significantly different. The latter category, i.e. "significant dilution of originating domain sense" is particularly interesting because it comprises a wide range of lexical items that have acquired a new general language sense which differs (though related to) from its specialized sense.
The aim of this paper is to show some aspects of the process of determinologization in the Croatian and Italian legal terminology. For the purpose of the paper, we decided to restrict the analysis to legal terminology in the Croatian and Italian languages. We shall focus on the processes of determinologization in both languages by discussing a number of selected entries from specialized dictionaries and general dictionaries, as well as other authentic data. This choice was mainly motivated by the desire to work with homogeneous data and to use terminologically reliable sources. Even though legal language and legal terminology reflect the specific features of the particular legal system, the subject of this paper does not comprise these differences. Our main objective is to highlight the common aspects of the determinologization process in both languages, aiming to present a potential universal trend of the analyzed process.
Faculty of Law, University of Zagreb
Linguistic diversity and language learning : language policies of the EU
Historically, the relationship between language and state could be seen in terns of diglossia involving an official language as the language of state and power, and numerous vernaculars used for informal communication. With the emergence of nation-states, language became an important instrument of national unification. What we witness today is a movement away from nation states as a result of globalization on the one hand, and large regional associations, on the other.
Under the well-known motto «unity in diversity », the European Union strongly supports linguistic diversity and multilingualism. The paper will present the main directions in the language policies of the EU, focusing on official languages, language learning, minority or regional languages and migrant languages, taking into account economic, political and cultural objectives. The paper is based on different types of documents produced by the main EU institutions, from the Council Resolution no. 1 (1958) to the present.
University of Mannheim
From contact linguistics to Eurolinguistics in European minority research – a survey
“Linguistic and cultural divergence and convergence which arises through the effects of multilingualism is the focus of Eurolinguistics” (PUSHKIN THESIS 2)
In this short survey of minority research in Europe, I will only be able to present a broad historiographic sketch from “Early Contact Studies in the Past” (see Fig. I) via Fig. II “Later Contact Studies” in Fig. II to the “Rise of Eurolinguistics Studies proper” in Fig. III and by ending with “Area Linguistics/ Sprachbund Studies” in Fig. IV, we have a long series of developmental stages (see my Handout).
As presented on the Handout, I will only sketch the historiographic trends by mentioning the major linguists and works which have been of importance for the break-through of Eurolinguistics as a branch of linguistics in its own right, the development of which has not been as self-evident as one may think.
Three main pillars for the emergence of Eurolinguistics as a self-contained focus of language research and European minorities are thus a combination of tripartite series of factors such as language contact+conflict studies within a socio-ethnic and geographic-historical framework. Such a combined socio-ethnic and geographic-historical approach is the very presumption for success in Eurolinguistics research, whereby the map of Europe has turned out to be an indispensible means of description for sketching the physical and cultural Europe-wide isoglosses criss-crossing the European continent.
Furthermore, on the Handout, I have also tried to describe the developmental steps in the form of a charter-flow on page one which indicates the Early contact studies succeeded by further contact-dependent studies on the rise of colonial Pidgin/Creole and, last but nor least, Balkan studies in South East Europe, Euro-Asian research, and, in the west, Euro-African studies on the Atlantic rim from Ireland down to North Africa initiated as early as the 1700s and 1800s. It is consequently from these contacts + conflicts between European major and minority languages on the outskirts of Europe that the impetus to the rise of Eurolinguistics has come.
After the more historiographic discussion I will give a concrete example of the use of the European map to describe the reflexive structures in their morphological and lexical forms and their geographical isoglosses criss-crossing the continent.( For a list of references and a written summary, see also my article in Eurolinguistics Newsletter 7( April 2011, pp. 4-6) , copies of which will be distributed in Božava and is also available on www.elama.de/homepage).